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Article_Allard.jpg

©2017 This excerpt taken from the article of the same name which appeared in ASHRAE Journal, vol. 59, no. 4, April 2017

By Julien Allard, Ing., Member ASHRAE.

About the Author
Julien Allard, ing., is an engineer and associate at Bouthillette Parizeau.

Making a transport center energy efficient is a tall order because of its 24/7 operation. Complicating matters for the Montreal transit system's new transport center was that it needed to minimize impact on the community, and 300 buses would require repairs and being washed, refueled, and parked every day. So designers enclosed the center in glass and steel. They addressed community concerns by positioning air exhaust outlets away from neighbors, camouflaging the cooling tower, and placing all mechanical equipment inside.

Integrated design helped optimize the architectural envelope performance, building loads, and construction cost, resulting in an effective layout for the seven hundred people who work in the 40 041 m2 (431 000 ft2 Stinson Transport Center. The overall envelope performance achieved a value of RSI 4.5 (R-25.6) for the walls, RSI 5.9 (R-35.5) for the roof, and RSI 0.84 (R-4.8) and shading coefficient is 0.5 for the glazing.

Before designing HVAC services, the building was thoroughly analyzed to identify the loads and ventilation airflow requirements. The needs were as follows: 11,712 kW of heating loads (40 million Btu/h), 816 kW (2.8 million Btu/h) of cooling, and a minimum of 144 483 L/s (147,372 cfm) of outdoor air for the programed uses. Considering these values, a building simulation helped identify appropriate measures to optimize heat reclaim and minimize HVAC operation and maintenance. Therefore, the design solutions included high-efficiency condensing glycol boilers, energy recovery ventilators (ERV) on the HVAC systems, and destratification fans in high volume spaces.

 

HVAC Systems

Two types of HVAC systems are used in the facility. In the service bay areas (Figure 1), seven identical HVAC systems supply 100% outdoor air of 18 878 L/s (33,487 cfm) continuously and provide heating and ventilation. To maximize the energy reclaimed, an ERV with an overall sensible efficiency of 85% (and 70% latent heat) is installed between outdoor airflow and general exhaust air. Seven 4.3 m (14 ft) diameter high-volume, low-speed destratification fans improve energy recovery by redistributing the accumulated heat near the roof and conveying it back to the maintenance work spaces below.

In the office area (Figure 2), two systems provide heating and cooling to the occupants while distributing variable airflow via terminal units. When the temperature is between 55°F and 75°F (13°C and 24°C), the 3455 L/s (7,321 cfm) minimum outdoor air can be increased and allowed to free cool the spaces while chillers are not in operation.

Air louvers were carefully positioned so outdoor air intakes are away from possible contaminants, while the exhaust air outlets are positioned away from the community. HVAC systems are equipped with filtration media with MERV13-A minimum efficiency, per ASHRAE Standard 52.2-2012, and are subject to a regular maintenance program.

 

Use of Outdoor Air

The highest demand comes from the amount of outdoor air that is treated and supplied, as the facility operates 24/7. A minimum of 144 483 L/s (14 7372 cfm) is required to meet ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, to ensure indoor air quality, increased ventilation rates (LEED ® EQc2), to meet the local health and safety codes, and to achieve the owner’s requirements.

 

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