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ASHRAE membership is open to any person associated with heating, ventilation, air conditioning or refrigeration. ASHRAE is unique because its membership is drawn from a wide range of disciplines relating to the HVAC&R field. Approximately 51,000 individuals from more than 100 nations belong to the Society.

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Resources & Publications
 

0213-CompletedResearch

Completed Research - February 2013

The final reports for the following research projects are available for free for ASHRAE members. Visit www.ashrae.org/research and log in to gain access. The ASHRAE Transactions papers are available for $5 for ASHRAE members at www.ashrae.org/bookstore.

1472

1472-URP, “Experimental Validation of Modeling Tools for Mixed Gas Refrigeration Cycles,” improves the operation of cryoprobes used in cryosurgery procedures to destroy undesirable tissues such as cancerous tumors.  Until now, there has been little work published on the modeling and optimization of the multi-component, multi-phase refrigeration cycle mixture that these cryoprobes utilize.  This research project modified a commercially available cryprobe to integrate measurement instrumentation to characterize the performance of individual components and the overall system. This data was used to develop an empirically-tuned mixture optimization model used to improve the design process for selecting mixture compositions, tip temperature, and heat exchanger sizes to maximize cryoprobe performance. A technical paper on this project was submitted and will be published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 115 (2), LO-09-092). 1472-URP, “Experimental Validation of Modeling Tools for Mixed Gas Refrigeration Cycles,” was sponsored by TC 10.1, Custom Engineered Refrigeration Systems. The principal investigator was Greg Nellis with the University of Wisconsin.

1486

The final phase of a three part ASHRAE research project to evaluate fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods for centrifugal chiller in field and lab environments is now complete. 1486-RP, “Fault Detection and Diagnostics for Centrifugal Chillers – Phase III: Online-Time Implementation,” specifies algorithms for incorporation within commercial FDD products or onboard chiller controls to monitor the health of the chiller’s operation. Advantages of the developed algorithms include easy to be implemented based on manufacturers’ data and available chiller onboard measurements, has robust performance in handling the common chiller faults, and ability to deal with multiple simultaneous faults. The final report details the FDD development process and a step by step implementing process to aid readers to apply and use the methods. A technical paper was published in the ASHRAE HVAC&R Research Journal (Vol. 17(1), February 2011) and is available now. 1486-RP, “Fault Detection and Diagnostics for Centrifugal Chillers – Phase III: Online-Time Implementation,” was sponsored by TC 7.5, Smart Building Systems. The principal investigator was Dr. Haorong Li with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

1409

Carbon dioxide (CO2) as a refrigerant has been around for over 100 years, is non flammable, inexpensive, widely available, and has low toxicity. It is getting renewed attention as a zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential alternative. While much research and development have been conducted to improve CO2 system design, performance and efficiency, there is limited data on system chemistry. 1409-RP, “Stability of Candidate Lubricant for CO2 Refrigeration,” studied the stability and compatibility of various lubricants with CO2 and typical compressor materials. The final report summarizes the visual changes, total acid numbers, organic anion and dissolved metal concentrations after aging to conclude mineral oils and alkyl benzene lubricants were most stable in CO2, followed by polyalkylene glycols (PAG), and polyolesters (POE). A technical paper has been submitted for future publication in ASHRAE Transactions. 1409-RP, “Stability of Candidate Lubricant for CO2 Refrigeration,” was sponsored by TC 3.2, Refrigerant System Chemistry. The principal investigator was Dr. Ngoc Dung Rohatgi with Spauschus Associates.

1312

While an air handling unit’s (AHU) operation significantly impacts building energy use, health, and comfort aspects, only a limited number of experimental studies to evaluate AHU simulation models and automated fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods are available. 1312-RP, “Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for Air Handling Units,” set out to develop and validate a dynamic AHU simulation model that is capable of producing fault free and faulty operation data for commonly used AHU configurations, and control and operation strategies. The final report presents the tool and compares modeled and measured data of dynamic behavior of a single duct dual fan variable air volume AHU system serving four building zones. Technical papers on this project published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 116 (1), OR-10-07, OR-10-08) are available now. 1312-RP, “Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for Air Handling Units,” was sponsored by TC 7.5, Smart Building Systems. The principal investigator was Dr. Jin Wen with Drexel University.

 

1487

In 2007 the EPA noted 1.5% of the USA’s nation’s energy load was from data centers and that energy use this could double by 2011. CFD can be a tool to optimize data center design, layout and energy efficiency. Modeling the rack is one of the critical pieces in this design but real data sets against which to compare models are rare due to the mission critical nature of these facilities. To fill this need, 1487-RP, “The Development of Simplified Rack Boundary Conditions for Numerical Data Center Models,” has developed steps to guide the CFD user in developing their own rack models for any CFD platform using input of heat dissipation rate and fan volumetric flow rate. The tool in the final report will allow designers to more quickly, confidently, and accurately model data centers. A technical paper on this project published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 118 (2), SA-12-009) is available now. 1487-RP, “The Development of Simplified Rack Boundary Conditions for Numerical Data Center Models,” was sponsored by TC 4.10, Indoor Environmental Modeling.  The principal investigator was Dr. John Zhai with the University of Colorado.

 

1344

Pressure differential (PD) of 0.05 in. (12.5 Pa.), as a single criterion for cleanrooms, has been used for many years since adopted into Federal Standard 209 and the ASHRAE Handbook. This criterion is believed over-simplified and no longer precise for more complex conditions and applications. 1344-RP, “Cleanroom Pressurization Strategy Update – Quantification and Validation of Minimum Pressure Differentials for Basic Configuration and Applications,” presents a list of minimum PD requirements across cleanroom envelopes grouped by cleanliness class difference. Furthermore, since some auxiliary devices could contribute a possible reduction on room cleanliness requirement, ACH or PD value, a table of auxiliary device benefits is presented as well. These tables are intended to replace the existing “single” pressure differential criterion. Technical papers on this project were published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 119 (1), DA-13-011, DA-13-12) are available now.

1344-RP, “Cleanroom Pressurization Strategy Update – Quantification and Validation of Minimum Pressure Differentials for Basic Configuration and Applications,” was sponsored by TC 9.11, Clean Spaces. The principal investigator was Wei Sun with Engsysco.

 

1345

Brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs) were recently introduced for use in cooling tower applications because they can provide higher heat transfer rate per unit volume and are more compact than conventional tube-and-shell exchangers. However, users of this type of equipment have typically applied the same fouling factors recommended for tube-type heat exchangers. 1345-RP, “Waterside Fouling Performance of Brazed-Plate Type Condensers in Cooling Tower Applications,” presents a new experimental methodology and validation of waterside thermal performance of BPHE’s under fouling operating conditions. This final report presents experimentally validated fouling resistance correlations and pressure drop correlations were provided for possible inclusion in the ASHRAE Handbook and possibly the AHRI Guideline E. Technical papers on this project published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 118 (1), CH-12-033) and ASHRAE HVAC&R Research Journal (Vol. 17(2), April 2011) are available now. 1345-RP, “Waterside Fouling Performance of Brazed-Plate Type Condensers in Cooling Tower Applications,” was sponsored by TC 8.5, Liquid-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers. The principal investigator was Dr. Lorenzo Cremaschi with the Oklahoma State University.

 

1431

Many cleanrooms and bio-safety facilities utilize airlocks at each entrance and exit for personnel, material, equipment, and product traffic to minimize the flow of contaminated air between clean spaces and less-clean or unclassified corridors. Despite these airlocks being commonly employed, critical in nature, and energy and space use intensive, they’ve not been thoroughly studied. A recently completed ASHRAE project has researched the effectiveness of numerous parameters (air lock type, number of doors, pressure differential, supply air flow rate, time-delay in opening of airlock doors, walk-in vs. walk-out, door-in vs. door-out) to optimize cleanroom decontamination results, energy and space use. The method presented in the final report can lead to development of a future ASHRAE standard for airlocks. A technical paper has been submitted for future publication in ASHRAE Transactions. 1431-RP, “Analysis of Transient Characteristics, Effectiveness, and Optimization of Cleanroom Airlocks,” was sponsored by TC 9.11, Clean Spaces.  The principal investigator was Mr. Wei Sun with Engsysco.

 

1477

Hourly weather data files available from ASHRAE have been limited in the number of locations available outside the US and Canada. These weather files are required input for building energy simulation programs commonly used in design. However, development requires hourly measurements over a 15-30 year historical period and formatting for use in energy simulation programs. With much of the raw weather data now being much easier to track and access, 1477-URP,” Development of Typical Year Weather Files from ISH Database of Historical Weather Data for 2005 International Locations,” developed over 3,000 new international weather files included in the ASHRAE IWEC 2.0 DVD. The final report details the development of this data. Technical papers on this project published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 116 (1), OR-10-045 and Vol. 115 (2), LO-09-062) are available now. 1477-URP,” Development of Typical Year Weather Files from ISH Database of Historical Weather Data for 2005 International Locations,” was sponsored by TC 4.2, Climatic Information. The principal investigator was Mr. Joe Huang with White Box Technologies.

 

1589

Microchannel-type heat exchangers have been recently adopted by the heat pump industry because of their compactness and efficiency for heating and cooling in residential and commercial applications. If used in outdoor refrigerant to-air direct expansion coils, they are subjected to significant frost growth and frequent defrost cycles, which ultimately limit their heating performance during winter. 1589-URP, “Effects of Fin Design on Frost and Defrost Thermal Performances of Microchannel Heat Exchangers,” experimentally investigated the effects of surface temperature, fin geometry, fin surface coatings and air psychrometric conditions on the thermal and hydraulic performance of the microchannel heat exchangers under frosting conditions. The final report includes data and correlations that predict frost thickness, air-side face-velocity reduction, and heat transfer coefficients for louvered folded fins operating under quasi-steady state frosting conditions in microchannel-type evaporators. A technical papers on this project published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 118 (1), CH-12-034) is available now. 1589-URP, “Effects of Fin Design on Frost and Defrost Thermal Performances of Microchannel Heat Exchangers,” was sponsored by TC 8.4, Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Transfer Equipment. The principal investigator was Dr. Lorenzo Cremaschi with the Oklahoma State University.

 

1356

Mechanical pipe insulation systems are often installed around cold cylindrical surfaces, such as chilled water pipes, in HVAC&R applications that work at below ambient temperatures. It is crucial the insulation system work properly to prevent freezing, condensation, mold growth, even corrosion. ASTM C335 presents a methodology for measuring thermal conductivity of pipe insulation systems but it is based on a heated pipe approach with outward heat flow and does not consider water vapor movement or condensation at below ambient applications. 1356-RP, “Methodology to Measure Actual Thermal Performance of Pipe and Duct Insulation at Below-Ambient Temperature,” developed a method and experimental apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of mechanical pipe insulation systems operating below ambient temperature. A technical paper on this project was published in ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. 118 (1), CH-12-034) and is available now.

1356-RP, “Methodology to Measure Actual Thermal Performance of Pipe and Duct Insulation at Below-Ambient Temperature,” was sponsored by TC 1.8, Mechanical Systems Insulation. The principal investigator was Dr. Lorenzo Cremaschi with Oklahoma State University.

 

1416

As contemporary building designs often include large windows or glass curtain walls, modeling convective heat transfer at the interior surfaces of these windows becomes crucial in calculating loads. 1416-RP, “Development of Internal Surface Convection Correlations for Energy and Load Calculation Methods,” has investigated interior convective heat transfer at perimeter curtain walls and window surfaces with over 200 experiments. The results will allow designers to better predict interior convection and calculate loads for these architectural designs. The final report details an algorithm to estimate load based on geometrical conditions, mechanical equipment present, operating mode, and thermal conditions in the space for implementation into the ASHRAE Load Toolkit. Furthermore, correlations are formatted for inclusion into ASHRAE Handbooks chapters for use by practitioners. A technical paper was published in the ASHRAE HVAC&R Research Journal (Vol. 16(5), September 2010) and is available now. 1416-RP, “Development of Internal Surface Convection Correlations for Energy and Load Calculation Methods,” was sponsored by TC 4.7, Energy Calculations. The principal investigator was Dr. Atila Novoselac with the University of Texas-Austin.

 

1476

The use of water as a refrigerant (R718) in refrigeration applications could have distinct advantages over traditional refrigerants. However, difficulties arise during manufacturing low-cost but high-performance compressor impellers to compress this natural refrigerant that still need to be addressed. 1476-URP, “Woven Compressor Enabling Economic and Scalable R718 Chillers – Phase 1: Proof of Concept,” set out to demonstrate a novel manufacturing method to manufacture composite impellers for compressing water-vapor refrigerant at a low cost. The final report demonstrates the feasibility of this manufacturing process and presents performance data that can be interpreted as a starting point upon which considerable improvements are possible. A technical paper has been submitted for future publication in ASHRAE Transactions. 1476-URP, “Woven Compressor Enabling Economic and Scalable R718 Chillers – Phase 1: Proof of Concept,” was sponsored by TC 8.2, Centrifugal Machines. The principal investigator was Dr. Norbert Mueller with Michigan State University.