SI Guide for HVAC&R
SI Guide for HVAC&R (PDF)
ASHRAE Units Policy
The following is excerpted from ASHRAE’s Rules of the Board:
1.201.002 Units Policy
1.201.002.1 The units use or application policy shall include, as a minimum, timedated directions on the use of SI and IP in all ASHRAE publications.
1.201.002.2 TC 1.6 shall serve as the authority on SI and IP usage and application.
1.201.002.3 Research projects; codes, standards, guidelines and addenda thereto; special publications; Insights articles; Journal articles; and Handbooks shall be prepared using the International System of Units (SI) and/or inchpound units (IP) in formats approved by the Publishing and Education Council.
1.201.002.4 The Publishing and Education Council shall review annually the approved formats to be used in ASHRAE publications, considering suggestions from members and committees, and shall establish any changes in the approved formats.
1.201.002.5 The Publishing and Education Council shall consider this Units Policy annually and shall recommend to the Board of Directors the formats to be used in ASHRAE publications.
 The format for ASHRAE publications shall be dual units, except in cases determined by the Publishing and Education Council, where two separate versions are to be published, where one is rational SI and the other is rational IP. For selected ASHRAE standards and guidelines, the Standards Committee may approve use of SI units only.
 In dual unit publications, the units used in calculating the work being reported shall be listed first. The alternate system of units should follow in parentheses. Authors shall round off equivalents in the alternate system of units so that they imply the same accuracy as is implied with primary units.
 Exceptions require the approval of the Director of Publishing and Education.
1.201.002.6 Handbook volumes shall be published in separate SI and IP editions.
1.201.002.7 Science and Technology for the Built Environment, as ASHRAE’s international research journal, may publish papers in dual units or, in cases where the original research being reported was conducted in SI units, in SI units only.
SI Practice
1 General
1.1 The International System of Units (SI) consists of seven base units listed in Table 1 and numerous derived units, which are combinations of base units (Table 2).
Table 1 SI Base Units

Quantity

Name

Symbol

length

metre

m

mass

kilogram

kg

time

second

s

electric current

ampere

A

thermodynamic temperature

kelvin

K

amount of substance

mole

mol

luminous intensity

candela

cd

Table 2 Selected SI Derived Units

Quantity

Expression in Other SI Units

Name

Symbol

acceleration

angular

rad/s^{2}



linear

m/s^{2}



angle

plane

dimensionless

radian

rad

solid

dimensionless

steradian

sr

area

m^{2}



Celsius temperature

K

degree Celsius

°C

conductivity, thermal

W/(m·K)



density

heat flux

W/m^{2}



mass

kg/m^{3}



energy, enthalpy

work, heat

N·m

joule

J

specific

J/kg



entropy

heat capacity

J/K



specific

J/(kg·K)



flow, mass

kg/s



flow, volume

m^{3}/s



force

kg·m/s^{2}

newton

N

frequency

periodic

1/s

hertz

Hz

rotating

rev/s



inductance

Wb/A

henry

H

magnetic flux

V·s

weber

Wb

moment of a force

N·m



potential, electric

W/A

volt

V

power, radiant flux

J/s

watt

W

pressure, stress

N/m^{2}

pascal

Pa

resistance, electric

V/A

ohm

Ω or O

velocity

angular

rad/s



linear

m/s



viscosity

dynamic (absolute) (m)

Pa·s



kinematic (n)

m^{2}/s



volume

m^{3}



volume, specific

m^{3}/kg



2 Units
2.1 In SI, each physical quantity has only one unit. The base and derived units may be modified by prefixes as indicated in Section 4. All derived units are formed as combinations of base units linked by the algebraic relations connecting the quantities represented. The basic simplicity of the system can only be kept by adhering to the approved units.
2.2 Angle. The unit of plane angle is the radian. The degree and its decimal fractions may be used, but the minute and second should not be used.
2.3 Area. The unit of area is the square metre. Large areas are expressed in hectares (ha) or square kilometres (km^{2}). The hectare is restricted to land or sea areas and equals 10 000 m^{2}.
2.4 Energy. The unit of energy, work, and quantity of heat is the joule (J). The kilowatthour (kWh) is presently allowed as an alternative in electrical applications, but should not be introduced in new applications.
1 kilowatthour (kWh) = 3.6 megajoules (MJ)
The unit of power and heat flow rate is the watt (W).
1 watt (W) = 1 joule per second (J/s)
2.5 Force. The unit of force is the newton (N). The newton is also used in derived units that include force.
Examples:
pressure or stress = N/m^{2} = Pa (pascal)
work = N·m = J (joule)
power = N·m/s = W (watt)
2.6 Length. The unit of length is the metre. The millimetre is used on architectural or construction drawings and mechanical or shop drawings. The symbol mm does not need to be placed after each dimension; a note, “All dimensions in mm,” is sufficient.
The centimetre is used only for cloth, clothing sizes, and anatomical measurements. The metre is used for topographical and plot plans. It is always written with a decimal and three figures following the decimal (e.g., 38.560).
2.7 Mass. The unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). The unit of mass is the only unit whose name, for historical reasons, contains a prefix. Names of multiples of the unit mass are formed by attaching prefixes to the word gram. The megagram, Mg (1000 kg, metric ton or tonne, t), is the appropriate unit for describing large masses. Do not use the term weight when mass is intended.
2.8 Pressure. The unit of stress or pressure, force per unit area, is the newton per square metre. This unit is called the pascal (Pa). SI has no equivalent symbol for psig or psia. If a misinterpretation is likely, spell out Pa (absolute) or Pa (gage).
2.9 Volume. The unit of volume is the cubic metre. Smaller units are the litre, L (m^{3}/1000); millilitre, mL; and microlitre, μL. No prefix other than m or μ is used with litre.
2.10 Temperature. The unit of thermodynamic (absolute) temperature is the Kelvin. Celsius temperature is measured in degrees Celsius. Temperature intervals may be measured in kelvins or degrees Celsius and are the same in either scale. Thermodynamic temperature is related to Celsius temperature as follows:
t_{c} = T – T_{0}
where
t_{c}= Celsius temperature, °C
T = thermodynamic temperature, kelvins (K)
T_{0} = 273.15 K by definition
2.11 Time. The unit of time is the second, which should be used in technical calculations. However, where time relates to life customs or calendar cycles, the minute, hour, day, and other calendar units may be necessary.
Exception: Revolutions per minute may be used, but revolutions per second is preferred.
3 Symbols
3.1 The correct use of symbols is important because an incorrect symbol may change the meaning of a quantity. Some SI symbols are listed in Table 3.
Table 3 SI Symbols

Symbol

Name

Quantity

Formula

A

ampere

electric current

base unit

a

atto

prefix

10^{–18}

Bq

becquerel

activity (of a radionuclide)

1/s

C

coulomb

quantity of electricity

A·s

°C

degree Celsius

temperature

°C = K

c

centi

prefix

10^{–2}

cd

candela

luminous intensity

base unit

d

deci

prefix

10^{–1}

da

deka

prefix

10^{1}

E

exa

prefix

10^{18}

F

farad

electric capacitance

C/V

f

femto

prefix

10^{–15}

G

giga

prefix

10^{9}

Gy

gray

absorbed dose

J/kg

g

gram

mass

kg/1000

H

henry

inductance

Wb/A

Hz

hertz

frequency

1/s

h

hecto

prefix

10^{2}

ha

hectare

area

10 000 m^{2}

J

joule

energy, work, heat

N·m

K

kelvin

temperature

base unit

k

kilo

prefix

10^{3}

kg

kilogram

mass

base unit

L

litre

volume

m^{3}/1000

lm

lumen

luminous flux

cd·sr

lx

lux

illuminance

lm/m

M

mega

prefix

10^{6}

m

metre

length

base unit

m

milli

prefix

10^{–3}

mol

mole

amount of substance

base unit

μ or u

micro

prefix

10^{–6}

N

newton

force

kg·m/s^{2}

n

nano

prefix

10^{–9}

Ω or O

ohm

electric resistance

V/A

P

peta

prefix

10^{15}

Pa

pascal

pressure, stress

N/m^{2}

p

pico

prefix

10^{–12}

rad

radian

plane angle

dimensionless

S

siemens

electric conductance

A/V

Sv

sievert

dose equivalent

J/kg

s

second

time

base unit

sr

steradian

solid angle

dimensionless

T

tera

prefix

10^{12}

T

tesla

magnetic flux density

Wb/m^{2}

t

tonne, metric ton

mass

1000 kg; Mg

V

volt

electric potential

W/A

W

watt

power, radiant flux

J/s

Wb

weber

magnetic flux

V · s

3.2 SI has no abbreviations—only symbols. Therefore, no periods follow a symbol except at the end of a sentence.
Examples: SI, not S.I.; s, not sec; A, not amp
3.3 Symbols appear in lower case unless the unit name has been taken from a proper name. In this case, the first letter of the symbol is capitalized.
Examples: m, metre; W, watt; Pa, pascal
Exception: L, litre
3.4 Symbols and prefixes are printed in upright (roman) type regardless of the type style in surrounding text.
Example: . . . a distance of 56 km between . . .
3.5 Unit symbols are the same whether singular or plural.
Examples: 1 kg, 14 kg; 1 mm, 25 mm
3.6 Leave a space between the value and the symbol.
Examples: 55 mm, not 55mm; 100 W, not 100W
Exception: No space is left between the numerical value and symbol for degree Celsius and degree of plane angle (e.g., 20°C, not 20 °C or 20° C; 45°, not 45 °). Note: Symbol for degree Celsius is °C; for coulomb, C.
3.7 Do not mix symbols and names in the same expression.
Examples:
m/s or metres per second, not metres/second; not metres/s
J/kg or joules per kilogram, not joules/kilogram; not joules/kg
3.8 Symbol for product—use the raised dot (·).
Examples: N·m; mPa·s; W/(m^{2} ·K)
3.9 Symbol for quotient—use a solidus (/) or a negative exponent. Note: Use only one solidus per expression.
Examples:
m/s; ms^{1}
m/s^{2} or (m/s)/s, not m/s/s
kJ/(kg·K) or (kJ/kg)/K, not kJ/kg/K
3.10 Place modifying terms such as electrical, alternating current, etc. parenthetically after the symbol with a space in between.
Examples:
MW (e), not MWe; not MW(e)
V (ac), not Vac; not V(ac)
kPa (gage), not kPa(gage); not kPa gage
4 Prefixes
4.1 Most prefixes indicate orders of magnitude in steps of 1000. Prefixes provide a convenient way to express large and small numbers and to eliminate nonsignificant digits and leading zeros in decimal fractions. Some prefixes are listed in Table 4.
Examples:
126 000 watts is the same as 126 kilowatts
0.045 metre is the same as 45 millimetres
65 000 metres is the same as 65 kilometres
4.2 To realize the full benefit of the prefixes when expressing a quantity by numerical value, choose a prefix so that the number lies between 0.1 and 1000. For simplicity, give preference to prefixes representing 1000 raised to an integral power (e.g., μm, mm, km).
Exceptions:
 For area and volume, the prefixes hecto, deka, deci, and centi are sometimes used; for example, cubic decimetre (L), square hectometre (hectare), cubic centimetre.
 Tables of values of the same quantity.
 Comparison of values.
 For certain quantities in particular applications. For example, the millimetre is used for linear dimensions in engineering drawings even when the values lie far outside the range of 0.1 mm to 1000 mm; the centimetre is usually used for body measurements and clothing sizes.
Table 4 SI Prefixes

Prefix

Pronunciation

Symbol

Represents

exa

ex'a (a as in about)

E

10^{18}

peta

pet a (e as in pet, a as in about)

P

10^{15}

tera

as in terra firma

T

10^{12}

giga

jig'a (i as in jig, a as in about)

G

10^{9}

mega

as in megaphone

M

10^{6}

kilo

kill oh

k

10^{3} = 1000

hecto

heck toe

h*

10^{2} = 100

deka

deck a (a as in about)

da*

10^{1} = 10

deci

as in decimal

d*

10^{–1} = 0.1

centi

as in centipede

c*

10^{–2} = 0.01

milli

as in military

m

10^{–3} = 0.001

micro

as in microphone

μ

10^{–6}

nano

nan oh (an as in ant)

n

10^{–9}

pico

peek oh

p

10^{–12}

4.3 Compound units. A compound unit is a derived unit expressed with two or more units. The prefix is attached to a unit in the numerator.
Examples:
V/m not mV/mm
mN·m not N·mm (torque)
MJ/kg not kJ/g
4.4 Compound prefixes formed by a combination of two or more prefixes are not used. Use only one prefix.
Examples:
2 nm not 2 mmm
6 MPa not 6 kkPa
4.5 Exponential Powers. An exponent attached to a symbol containing a prefix indicates that the multiple (of the unit with its prefix) is raised to the power of 10 expressed by the exponent.
Examples:
1 mm^{3} = (10^{–3} m)^{3} = 10^{–9} m^{3}
1 ns^{–1} = (10^{–9} s)^{–1} = 10^{9} s^{–1}
1 mm^{2}/s = (10^{–3} m)^{2}/s = 10^{–6} m^{2}/s
5 Numbers
5.1 Large Numbers. International practice separates the digits of large numbers into groups of three, counting from the decimal to the left and to the right, and inserts a space to separate the groups. In numbers of four digits, the space is not necessary except for uniformity in tables.
Examples: 2.345 678; 73 846; 635 041; 600.000; 0.113 501; 7 258
5.2 Small Numbers. When writing numbers less than one, always put a zero before the decimal marker.
Example: 0.046
5.3 Decimal Marker. The recommended decimal marker is a dot on the line (period). (In some countries, a comma is used as the decimal marker.)
5.4 Billion. Because billion means a thousand million in the United States and a million million in most other countries, avoid using the term in technical writing.
5.5 Roman Numerals. Do not use M to indicate thousands (MBtu for a thousand Btu), nor MM to indicate millions, nor C to indicate hundreds; they conflict with SI prefixes.
6 Words
6.1 The units in the international system of units are called SI units—not Metric Units and not SI Metric Units. (InchPound units are called IP units—not conventional units, not U.S. customary units, not English units, and not Imperial units.)
6.2 Treat all spelled out names as nouns. Therefore, do not capitalize the first letter of a unit except at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title.
Examples: watt; pascal; ampere; volt; newton; kelvin
Exception: Always capitalize the first letter of Celsius.
6.3 Do not begin a sentence with a unit symbol—either rearrange the words or write the unit name in full.
6.4 Use plurals for spelled out words when required by the rules of grammar.
Examples: metre — metres; henry — henries; kilogram — kilograms; kelvin — kelvins
Irregular: hertz — hertz; lux — lux; siemens — siemens
6.5 Do not put a space or hyphen between the prefix and unit name.
Examples: kilometre, not kilo metre or kilometre; milliwatt, not milli watt or milliwatt
6.6 When a prefix ends with a vowel and the unit name begins with a vowel, retain and pronounce both vowels.
Example: kiloampere
Exceptions: hectare; kilohm; megohm
6.7 When compound units are formed by multiplication, leave a space between units that are multiplied.
Examples: newton metre, not newtonmetre; volt ampere, not voltampere
Table 5 SI Units for HVAC&R Catalogs

Quantity

Unit

Boilers

Heat output

kW

Heat input

kW

Heat release

kW/m^{2}

Steam generation rate

kg/s

Fuel firing rate:

solid

kg/s

gaseous

L/s

liquid

kg/s, L/s

Volume flow rate (combustion products)

m^{3}/s, L/s

Power input (to drives)

kW

Operating pressure

kPa

Hydraulic resistance

kPa

Draft conditions

Pa

Coil, Cooling and Heating

Heat exchange rate

kW

Primary medium:

mass flow rate

kg/s

hydraulic resistance

kPa

Air volume flow rate

m^{3}/s, L/s

Airflow static pressure loss

Pa

Face area

m^{2}

Fin spacing, center to center

mm

Controls and Instruments

Flow rate:

mass

kg/s

volume

m^{3}/s, L/s, mL/s

Operating pressure

kPa

Hydraulic resistance

kPa

Rotational frequency

rev/s (rpm)*

Cooling Towers

Heat extraction rate

kW

Volume flow rate:

air

m^{3}/s, L/s

water

m^{3}/s, L/s

Power input (to drive)

kW

Diffusers and Grilles

Air volume flow rate

m^{3}/s, L/s

Airflow pressure loss

Pa

Velocity

m/s

Fans

Air volume flow rate

m^{3}/s, L/s

Power input (to drive)

kW

Fan static pressure

Pa

Fan total pressure

Pa

Rotational frequency

rev/s (rpm)*

Outlet velocity

m/s

Air Filters

Air volume flow rate

m^{3}/s, L/s

Static pressure loss

Pa

Face area

m^{2}

Fuels

Heating value:

solid

MJ/kg

gaseous

MJ/m^{3}

liquid

MJ/kg

Heat Exchangers

Heat output

kW

Mass flow rate

kg/s

Hydraulic resistance

kPa

Operating pressure

kPa

Flow velocity

m/s

Heat exchange surface

m^{2}

Fouling factor

m^{2}/W

Induction Terminals

Heating or cooling output

kW

Primary air volume flow rate

m^{3}/s, L/s

Primary air static pressure loss

Pa

Secondary water mass flow rate

kg/s

Secondary water hydraulic resistance

kPa

Pumps

Mass flow rate

kg/s

Volume flow rate

L/s

Power input (to drive)

kW

Developed pressure

kPa

Operating pressure

kPa

Rotational frequency

rev/s (rpm)*

Space Heating Apparatus

Heat output

kW

Airflow volume flow rate

m^{3}/s, L/s

Power input (to drive)

kW

Primary medium mass flow rate

kg/s

Hydraulic resistance

kPa

Operating pressure

kPa

Airflow static pressure loss

Pa

Vessels

Operating pressure

kPa

Volumetric capacity

m^{3}, L

Air Washers

Volume flow rate:

air

m^{3}/s, L/s

water

m^{3}/s, L/s

Mass flow rate, water

kg/s

Power input (to drive)

kW

Airflow static pressure loss

Pa

Hydraulic resistance

kPa

Water Chillers

Cooling capacity

kW

Mass flow rate, water

kg/s

Power input (to drive)

kW

Refrigerant pressure

kPa

Hydraulic resistance

kPa

*Acceptable

6.8 Use the modifier squared or cubed after the unit name.
Example: metre per second squared
Exception: For area or volume, place the modifier before the units (e.g., square millimetre, cubic metre)
6.9 When compound units are formed by division, use the word per, not a solidus (/).
Examples: metre per second, not metre/second; watt per square metre, not watt/square metre
7 Conversions and Substitutions
7.1 Conversions are produced by multiplying the original value by a factor, then rounding so that it implies the same accuracy as in the original units. The same number of significant digits should be retained in the converted value. To convert a value, multiply it by the conversion factor (as found in Tables 6 and 7) and then round to the appropriate number of significant digits. For example, to convert 3 feet 6 7/8 inches to metres:
(3 ft · 0.3048 m/ft) + (6.875 in · 0.0254 m/in) = 1.089 025 m,
which rounds to 1.089 m.
When making conversions, remember that a converted value is no more precise than the original value. For many applications, rounding off the converted value to the same number of significant figures as those in the original value provides acceptable accuracy.
7.2 Significant digits are defined as those “necessary to define a numerical value of a quantity” (IEEE/ASTM 2011). Identification of significant digits requires a judgment based on the context of the original measurement or rounding. For example, a drawing notation of “4 ft above finished floor” is unlikely to require a converted SI value of 1.2192 m; a more reasonable value is 1.2 m or 1200 mm.
7.3 Substitutions define a new rational value for the measurement, using the original value as a guide in selecting a logical size in the alternative units.
Examples:
1. A 100 yard foot race converts to 91.44 m; however, a substitution of 100 m is made, for a more rational race distance.
2. A 12 in. pipe size converts to 305 mm. However, if a more logical SI pipe size is 300 mm, to match the size available where a project will be built, 300 mm would be a substitution.
7.4 Generally, for projects in which items from one system of units must fit together with those using another system, conversions should be used. Substitutions should be used when the entire item or system can be specified with the new, more logical value.
7.5 The terms conversion and substitution should be used to differentiate between direct conversions and the choice of a new size for a value. The terms hard conversion and soft conversion should not be used.
Table 6  Conversion Factors^{†} 
Pressure psi


in. of water (60°F)


in. Hg (32°F)


atmosphere


mm Hg (32°F)


bar

^{ }

kg_{f}/cm^{ 2}


pascal

1

=

27.708

=

2.0360

=

0.068046

=

51.715

=

0.068948

=

0.07030696

=

6894.8

0.036091

1

0.073483

2.4559 × 10^{ 3}

1.8665

2.4884 × 10^{ 3}

2.537 × 10^{ 3}

248.84

0.491154

13.609

1

0.033421

25.400

0.033864

0.034532

3386.4

14.6960

407.19

29.921

1

760.0

1.01325*

1.03323

1.01325 × 10^{ 5} *

0.0193368

0.53578

0.03937

1.31579 × 10^{ 3}

1

1.3332 × 10^{ 3}

1.3595 × 10^{ 3}

133.32

14.5038

401.86

29.530

0.98692

750.062

1

1.01972*

10^{ 5} *

14.223

394.1

28.959

0.96784

735.559

0.980665*

1

9.80665 × 10^{ 4} *

1.45038 × 10^{ 4}

4.0186 × 10^{ 3}

2.953 × 10^{ 4}

9.8692 × 10^{ 6}

7.50 × 10^{ 3}

10^{ 5} *

1.01972 × 10^{ 5} *

1

Mass

lb (avoir.)


grain


ounce (avoir.)


kg


1

=

7000*

=

16*

=

0.45359

1.4286 × 10^{ 4}

1

2.2857 × 10^{ 3}

6.4800 × 10^{ 5}

0.06250

437.5*

1

0.028350

2.20462

1.5432 × 10^{ 4}

35.274

1

Volume

cubic inch


cubic foot


gallon


litre


cubic metre (m^{3} )


1

=

5.787 × 10^{4}

=

4.329 × 10^{3}

=

0.0163871

=

1.63871 × 10^{5}

1728*

1

7.48052

28.317

0.028317

231.0*

0.13368

1

3.7854

0.0037854

61.02374

0.035315

0.264173

1

0.001*

6.102374 × 10^{4}

35.315

264.173

1000*

1

Energy

Btu


ft · lb_{f}


calorie (cal)


joule (J) = wattsecond (W · s)


watthour (W · h)

Note: MBtu, which is 1000 Btu, is confusing and should not be used.

1

=

778.17

=

251.9958

=

1055.056

=

0.293071

1.2851 × 10^{ 3}

1

0.32383

1.355818

3.76616 × 10^{ 4}

3.9683 × 10^{ 3}

3.08803

1

4.1868*

1.163 × 10^{ 3} *

9.4782 × 10^{ 4}

0.73756

0.23885

1

2.7778 × 10^{ 4}

3.41214


2655.22


859.85


3600*


1

Density

lb/ft^{ 3}


lb/gal


g/cm^{3}


kg/m^{3}


1

=

0.133680

=

0.016018

=

16.018463

7.48055

1

0.119827

119.827

62.4280

8.34538

1

1000*

0.0624280

0.008345

0.001*

1

Specific Volume

ft^{3} /lb


gal/lb


cm^{3} /g


m^{3} /kg


1

=

7.48055

=

62.4280

=

0.0624280

0.133680

1

8.34538

0.008345

0.016018

0.119827

1

0.001*

16.018463

119.827

1000*

1

Viscosity (absolute) 1 poise = 1 dynesec/cm^{ 2} = 0.1 Pa · s = 1 g/(cm · s)

poise


lb_{f} · s/ft^{2}


lb_{f} · h/ft^{2}


kg/(m · s) = N · s/m^{2}


lb_{m} /ft · s

1

=

2.0885 × 10^{3}

=

5.8014 × 10^{7}

=

0.1*

=

0.0671955

478.8026

1

2.7778 × 10^{4}

47.88026

32.17405

1.72369 × 10^{6}

3600*

1

1.72369 × 10^{5}

1.15827 × 10^{5}

10*

0.020885

5.8014 × 10^{6}

1

0.0671955

14.8819

0.031081

8.6336 × 10^{ 6}

1.4882

1

Temperature

Temperature

Temperature Interval

Scale

K

°C

°R

°F


K

°C

°R

°F

Kelvin

x K =

x

x  273.15

1.8 x

1.8 x  459.67

1 K =

1

1

9/5 = 1.8

9/5 = 1.8

Celsius

x °C =

x + 273.15

x

1.8 x + 491.67

1.8 x + 32

1°C =

1

1

9/5 = 1.8

9/5 = 1.8

Rankine

x °R =

x /1.8

( x  491.67)/1.8

x

x  459.67

1°R =

5/9

5/9

1

1

Fahrenheit

x °F =

( x + 459.67)/1.8

( x  32)/1.8

x + 459.67

x

1°F =

5/9

5/9

1

1

The Btu and calorie are based on the International Table.


Table 7  Conversions to IP and SI Units (Multiply IP values by conversion factors to obtain SI; divide SI values by conversion factors to obtain IP) 
Multiply IP

By

To Obtain SI

To Obtain IP

By

Divide SI

acre (43,560 ft^{2} )

0.4047

ha

4046.873

m^{2 }

atmosphere (standard)

*101.325

kPa

bar

*100

kPa

barrel (42 U.S. gal, petroleum)

159.0

L

0.1580987

m^{3}

Btu (International Table)

1055.056

J

Btu (thermochemical)

1054.350

J

Btu/ft^{2} (International Table)

11,356.53

J/m^{2}

Btu/ft^{3} (International Table)

37,258.951

J/m^{3}

Btu/gal

278,717.1765

J/m^{3}

Btu · ft/h · ft^{2} · °F

1.730735

W/(m · K)

Btu · in/h · ft^{2} · °F (thermal conductivity k ) .

0.1442279

W/(m · K)

Btu/h

0.2930711

W

Btu/h · ft^{2}

3.154591

W/m^{2}

Btu/h · ft^{2} · °F (overall heat transfer coefficient U )

5.678263

W/(m^{2} · K)

Btu/lb

*2.326

kJ/kg

Btu/lb · °F (specific heat cp)

*4.1868

kJ/(kg · K)

bushel (dry, U.S.)

0.0352394

m^{3}

calorie (thermochemical)

*4.184

J

centipoise (dynamic viscosity μ)

*1.00

mPa · s

centistokes (kinematic viscosity ν)

*1.00

mm^{2} /s

clo

0.155

(m^{2} · K)/W

dyne

1.0 × 105

N

dyne/cm^{2}

*0.100

Pa

EDR hot water (150 Btu/h)

43.9606

W

EDR steam (240 Btu/h)

70.33706

W

EER

0.293

COP

ft

*0.3048

m

*304.8

mm

ft/min, fpm

*0.00508

m/s

ft/s, fps

*0.3048

m/s

ft of water

2989

Pa

ft of water per 100 ft pipe

98.1

Pa/m

ft^{2}

0.092903

m^{2}

ft^{2} · h · °F/Btu (thermal resistance R )

0.176110

(m^{2} · K)/W

ft^{2}/s (kinematic viscosity ν)

92,900

mm^{2} /s

ft^{3}

28.316846

L

0.02832

m^{3}

ft^{3} /min, cfm

0.471947

L/s

ft^{3}/s, cfs

28.316845

L/s

ft · lb_{f} (torque or moment)

1.355818

N · m

ft · lb_{f} (work)

1.356

J

ft · lb_{f} /lb (specific energy)

2.99

J/kg

ft · lb_{f} /min (power)

0.0226

W

footcandle

10.76391

lx

gallon (U.S., *231 in^{3} )

3.785412

L

gph

1.05

mL/s

gpm

0.0631

L/s

gpm/ft^{2}

0.6791

L/(s · m^{2} )

gpm/ton refrigeration

0.0179

mL/J

grain (1/7000 lb)

0.0648

g

gr/gal

17.1

g/m^{3}

gr/lb

0.143

g/kg

horsepower (boiler) (33,470 Btu/h)

9.81

kW

horsepower (550 ft · lb_{f } /s)

0.7457

kW

inch

*25.4

mm

in. of mercury (60°F)

3.3864

kPa

in. of water (60°F)

248.84

Pa

in/100 ft, thermal expansion coefficient

0.833

mm/m

in · lb_{f} (torque or moment)

113

mN · m

in^{2}

645.16

mm^{2}

in^{3} (volume)

16.3874

mL

in^{3} /min (SCIM)

0.273117

mL/s

in^{3} (section modulus)

16,387

mm^{3}

in^{4} (section moment)

416,231

mm^{4}

kWh

*3.60

MJ

kW/1000 cfm

2.118880

kJ/m^{3}

kilopond (kg force)

9.81

N

kip (1000 lb_{f} )

4.45

kN

kip/in^{2} (ksi)

6.895

MPa

litre

*0.001

m^{3}

met

58.15

W/m^{2}

micron ( μ m) of mercury (60°F)

133

mPa

mile

1.609

km

mile, nautical

*1.852

km

mile per hour (mph)

1.609344

km/h

0.447

m/s

millibar

*0.100

kPa

mm of mercury (60°F)

0.133

kPa

mm of water (60°F)

9.80

Pa

ounce (mass, avoirdupois)

28.35

g

ounce (force or thrust)

0.278

N

ounce (liquid, U.S.)

29.6

mL

ounce inch (torque, moment)

7.06

mN · m

ounce (avoirdupois) per gallon

7.489152

kg/m^{3}

perm (permeance at 32°F)

5.72135 × 10^{11}

kg/(Pa · s · m^{2} )

perm inch (permeability at 32°F)

1.45362 × 10^{12}

kg/(Pa · s · m)

pint (liquid, U.S.)

4.73176 × 10^{4}

m^{3}

pound

lb (avoirdupois, mass)

0.453592

kg

453.592

g

lb_{f} (force or thrust)

4.448222

N

lb_{f } /ft (uniform load)

14.59390

N/m

lb/ft · h (dynamic viscosity μ )

0.4134

mPa · s

lb/ft · s (dynamic viscosity μ )

1490

mPa · s

lb_{f} · s/ft^{2} (dynamic viscosity μ )

47.88026

Pa · s

lb/h

0.000126

kg/s

lb/min

0.007559

kg/s

lb/h [steam at 212°F (100°C)]

0.2843

kW

lb_{f} /ft^{2}

47.9

Pa

lb/ft^{2}

4.88

kg/m^{2}

lb/ft^{3} (density ρ )

16.0

kg/m^{3}

lb/gallon

120

kg/m^{3}

ppm (by mass)

*1.00

mg/kg

psi

6.895

kPa

quad (10^{15} Btu)

1.055

EJ

quart (liquid, U.S.)

0.9463

L

square (100 ft^{2} )

9.2903

m^{2}

tablespoon (approximately)

15

mL

teaspoon (approximately)

5

mL

therm (U.S.)

105.5

MJ

ton, long (2240 lb)

1.016046

Mg

ton, short (2000 lb)

0.907184

Mg; t (tonne)

ton, refrigeration (12,000 Btu/h)

3.517

kW

torr (1 mm Hg at 0°C)

133

Pa

watt per square foot

10.76

W/m^{2}

yd

*0.9144

m

yd^{2}

0.8361

m^{2}

yd^{3}

0.7646

m^{3}

Multiply IP

By

To Obtain SI

To Obtain IP

By

Divide SI

Source: ASHRAE (2013).

*Conversion factor is exact.
Notes: 1. Units are U.S. values unless noted otherwise. 2. Litre is a special name for the cubic decimetre. 1 L = 1 dm^{3} and 1 mL = 1 cm^{3} .

References
ASHRAE. 2013. Chapter 38, Units and conversions. In ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.
IEEE/ASTM. 2011. American National Standard for Metric Practice. ANSI/IEEE/ ASTM SI 10™2010. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York; ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
© 2013 ASHRAE. All rights reserved.
ASHRAE® has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in this publication is free of errors. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.
This guide is based in large part on ANSI/IEEE/ASTM SI 10™2010, American National Standard for Metric Practice (IEEE/ASTM 2011). See ANSI/IEEE/ASTM SI 10™2010 for more information and a complete list of conversion factors with more significant digits.